Thanks! I've always found the trick to forming HRE is using papal points and the bonuses from the Papal Shop. That and always tell HRE members to release nations and/or convert to catholism in peace offers. This is from yesterday. France attacked me over Calais, but wanted Cornwall as well as me to release some scottish province. I was too stubborn and believed that I could wait him out. Fifty years later and the fucker was still going strong. I could have kept this going on for much longer (as I was actually seeing some real develpoment of my income and strengthening of my fleets during the war), but I gave up and gave him what he wanted. It was easy to take it back, even though it would take nearly a 100 years for Calais to return to me. Longest war I've ever had or seen in EU4 yet and not a single life was lost. EDIT: Why not try Sardinia-Piedmont? It's not terribly difficult if you can balance kissing up to both France and Austria after Shadow Empire fires. Main difficulty lies in taking Sardinia from either Aragon or Castille. And surviving afterwards, of course Albania and Theodoro are both quite advanced.